Veterinary Vaccines: Current Innovations and Future Trends
Caister Academic Press
Laurel J. Gershwin and Amelia R. Woolums
School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis CA, USA and College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, USA; respectively
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The global demand for more, affordable, safe, and exotic foods in recent years has led to the increased use of intensive farming: this is closely associated with increased outbreaks of a variety of animal and zoonotic diseases. In addition to infectious diseases, cancer in animals is of key importance and research in this area has applications in humans that can be more relevant than studies from murine models. The urgent need for the development of new efficacious vaccines to control animal diseases has never been clearer.
This concise book captures the essence of current and future shifts in vaccine development research that will likely transform our understanding of methods to stimulate specific and protective immune responses to infectious diseases, and to offer improved therapeutic applications for oncology patients. The book opens with a chapter on reverse vaccinology and systems vaccinology approaches that should lead to more effective vaccines with fewer side effects. This is followed by a chapter describing recent developments in cancer immunotherapy and vaccination. Additional chapters provide updates on mucosal vaccines in the bovine context, adjuvants, transboundary diseases of livestock, and maternal and neonatal immunization. The book closes with a timely discussion of the newest vaccine modality currently being evaluated to control the human COVID19 pandemic, mRNA vaccines.
This book is essential reading for everyone working with vaccine development, from the PhD student to the experienced scientist, in academia, the pharmaceutical or biotechnology industries, and in clinical environments.
Table of contents
1. New Approaches to Vaccinology Made Possible by Advances in Next Generation Sequencing, Bioinformatics and Protein modeling
Amelia R. Woolums and Cypriana Swiderski
Vaccines can be powerful tools, but for some diseases, safe and effective vaccines have been elusive. New developments in nucleic acid sequencing, bioinformatics, and protein modeling are facilitating the discovery of previously unknown antigens through reverse vaccinology approaches. Sequencing the complementarity-determining region of antibodies and T cell receptors allows detailed assessment of the immune repertoire and identification of paratopes shared by many individuals, supporting the selection of antigens that may be broadly protective. Systems vaccinology approaches to asses the global host response to vaccination by evaluation of differentially expressed genes in blood, cellular or tissue transcriptomes can reveal previously unknown pathways and interactions related to protective immunity. While it is important to remember that discoveries made through reverse vaccinology and systems vaccinology must still be confirmed with traditional challenge models and clinical trials, these approaches can provide new perspectives that may help solve longstanding problems in veterinary vaccinology.
2. Cancer Vaccines
Philip J. Bergman
The enhanced understanding of immunology experienced over the last 4-5 decades afforded through the tools of molecular biology has recently translated into cancer immunotherapy becoming one of the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields. Human cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as one of the pillars of treatment alongside surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. The field of veterinary cancer immunotherapy has also rapidly advanced in the last decade with a handful of commercially available products (one of which is a xenogeneic DNA cancer vaccine) and a plethora of investigational cancer immunotherapies which will likely expand our veterinary oncology treatment toolkit over time.
3. Bovine Mucosal Vaccines: Challenges and Opportunities
Paola Elizalde and Philip J. Griebel
Mucosal vaccines have been used in cattle for almost 50 years with intranasal and oral delivery being primary routes of vaccine delivery. There is increasing interest in the use of mucosal vaccination in cattle for several reasons. In newborn calves, intranasal vaccines provide a strategy to reduce vaccine interference by maternal antibody and enhance disease protection as maternal antibody wanes. Mucosal vaccines also offer an advantage in controlling both clinical disease and reducing transmission of mucosal pathogens. As our understanding of mucosal immunity improves, mucosal vaccines may offer opportunities to activate both innate and adaptive mucosal effector cells and improve control of mucosal infections while maintaining mucosal barrier integrity and vital mucosal functions. Furthermore, a greater understanding of host-microbiome interactions may inform vaccine strategies to control opportunistic pathogens residing within the commensal microbiome. Unique aspects of the bovine mucosal immune system are considered within the context of vaccination and the limitations and potential benefits of mucosal vaccines and vaccine delivery systems are discussed. Finally, the potential for new vaccine delivery vehicles and vaccination strategies to improve mucosa vaccine efficacy are discussed within the context of opportunities to address current infectious disease challenges in cattle.
4. Adjuvants: State of the Art and New Developments
Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk and George Mutwiri
Adjuvants are used for formulation of vaccine antigens to increase immune responses. While only a few different kinds of adjuvant are used in veterinary vaccines, many new adjuvant types are under investigation, and although much research still needs to be done, we have increased knowledge of the mechanism of action of adjuvants. We also have a much better understanding of the innate immune system, and the link with adaptive immunity. This allows us to develop a better rationale for selection of adjuvants suitable for specific antigens, diseases, animal species and routes of delivery. Since multiple receptors and ligands are involved in activation of the innate immune response, adjuvant formulations can be generated that contain one or several of those ligands in combinations that are tailor-made for induction of humoral, cell-mediated or balanced immune responses. Many new adjuvants combine several mechanisms of action, which can be additive or synergistic. In this chapter we discuss the state of the art and recent progress in adjuvant development, particularly in the context of veterinary vaccines, as well as the mechanism of action known for some of the adjuvants.
5. Challenges in Having Vaccines Available to Control Transboundary Diseases of Livestock
Charles E. Lewis and James A. Roth
The global human population is growing at a rapid rate leading to the need for continued expansion of food animal production to meet the world's increasing nutritional requirements. As a consequence of this increased production demand, the use of high volume, animal dense systems have expanded providing high quality protein at reduced costs. Backyard animal production has also expanded. This increased food animal production has facilitated the rapid spread, mutation, and adaptation of pathogens to new hosts. This scenario continues to drive the emergence and reemergence of diseases in livestock species increasing the urgency for development and availability of vaccines for transboundary animal diseases (TADs). Even though vaccines are widely recognized as being an essential tool for control of TADs, there are many scientific, economic, political, and logistical challenges to having vaccine available to control an outbreak. This chapter will focus on examples of the challenges associated with having vaccines available for emergency response, as well as the characteristics of 'ideal' TAD vaccines, the need for complementary diagnostic assays, and hurdles involved in bringing efficacious veterinary TAD vaccines to market including regulatory constraints and considerations for stockpiling vaccines for emergency use in non-endemic countries. Examples will also highlight the complicated interplay between animal health and human health and demonstrate the lasting benefits that can be gained from an efficacious vaccine.
6. Neonatal Vaccination and Maternal Immunization
Heather L. Wilson and Volker Gerdts
Neonates of all species are highly susceptible to infectious diseases. Current evidence suggests that neonates of most species are fully capable of mounting effective immune responses. Indeed, one of the reasons why neonates greatly suffer from infectious disease might be the fact that immune responses in this age group are often too strong contributing to immune pathology and non-physiological responses rather than simply clearing the infection. This hypothesis suggests that neonates may effectively respond to vaccination when properly stimulated, and that response to vaccination in neonates can be, and should be, driven through the use of adjuvants and other innate immune modulators that help guide the response towards a protective and long-lasting response. Here, we review some of the current strategies to enhance the effectiveness of vaccines in neonatal animals in the presence of passive maternal immunity. Colostral and lactogenic passive immunity are particularly important mechanisms to protect against enteric diseases in the very young, in particular through the transfer of maternal antibodies. Immunizing the mother to increase the passive transfer has been utilized for centuries to enhance the level and duration of protection in the neonate. Here, we will review some innovative strategies for maternal and neonatal vaccines against common infectious diseases.
7. RNA Vaccines for Infectious Diseases of Animals: A Future Trend
Laurel J. Gershwin
Future trends for veterinary vaccines must include mRNA vaccines. Vaccines consisting of mRNA that encodes a protective antigen from the pathogen of interest offer a new and exciting approach to development of veterinary immunoprophylaxis. The technique has several advantages over attenuated, inactivated, subunit, and viral vectored vaccines. Once the sequence of a candidate antigen is known a mRNA can be made. Cell culture and viral propagation is not a requirement for vaccine production. Thus these vaccines can be manufactured rapidly and once developed are not costly. These characteristics make mRNA vaccines a strong choice for development of newly emerging viruses for species of veterinary importance. Indeed at least one candidate vaccine for the COVID-19 currently in clinical trials is a mRNA vaccine. Herein the published work on candidate mRNA vaccines for human and zoonotic disease is described, including mechanisms of action and choices for delivery of the mRNA are discussed.
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(EAN: 9781913652593 9781913652609 Subjects: [bacteriology] [medical microbiology] [microbiology] [molecular microbiology] [virology] )