Alphaherpesviruses: Molecular Biology, Host Interactions and Control
Caister Academic Press
Ekaterina E. Heldwein1
and Gregory A. Smith2
1Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, USA. 2Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, USA
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Alphaherpesviruses encompass a broad group of pathogens including neuroinvasive viruses that establish lifelong infections in the peripheral nervous system of humans and many other vertebrates. One prominent example are herpes simplex viruses that infect most humans and can cause diseases ranging from painful skin ulcers to deadly encephalitis. For decades, researchers have been asking what makes these viruses neurotropic, how they establish a latent state, and why these typically benign infections can sometimes have severe or lethal outcomes.
Since the last edition of this volume in 2011, our understanding of the alphaherpesviruses has significantly advanced creating the need for this new book that distils the most important new information to provide a timely overview. Chapters are written by well-respected researchers, each offering their perspectives on the current state of the field, using herpes simplex virus as the main focus. Topics covered include: genomics; entry into the cell; genome delivery from the cell periphery to the nucleus; the fate of the genome in the nucleus; infection of neurons; establishment of latency; host cellular responses to infection; viral immune evasion strategies; capsid egress from the nucleus; virion assembly in the cytoplasm; vaccines; oncolytic vectors.
This book is essential reading for students, virologists, immunologists, medical and veterinary professionals and scientists working on neuroinvasive alphaherpesviruses. It is also a recommended reading for anyone with an interest in neurovirology and persistent viral infections.
Table of contents
1. Alphaherpesvirus Genomics: Past, Present and Future
Chad V. Kuny and Moriah L. Szpara
Alphaherpesviruses, as large double-stranded DNA viruses, were long considered to be genetically stable and to exist in a homogeneous state. Recently, the proliferation of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics analysis has expanded our understanding of herpesvirus genomes and the variations found therein. Recent data indicate that herpesviruses exist as diverse populations, both in culture and in vivo, in a manner reminiscent of RNA viruses. In this chapter, we discuss the past, present, and potential future of alphaherpesvirus genomics, including the technical challenges that face the field. We also review how recent data has enabled genome-wide comparisons of sequence diversity, recombination, allele frequency, and selective pressures, including those introduced by cell culture. While we focus on the human alphaherpesviruses, we draw key insights from related veterinary species and from the beta- and gamma-subfamilies of herpesviruses. Promising technologies and potential future directions for herpesvirus genomics are highlighted as well, including the potential to link viral genetic differences to phenotypic and disease outcomes.
Tina M. Cairns and Sarah A. Connolly
Alphaherpesviruses are enveloped viruses that enter cells by fusing the viral membrane with a host cell membrane, either within an endocytic vesicle or at the plasma membrane. This entry event is mediated by a set of essential entry glycoproteins, including glycoprotein D (gD), gHgL, and gB. gHgL and gB are conserved among herpesviruses, but gD is unique to the alphaherpesviruses and is not encoded by all alphaherpesviruses. gD is a receptor-binding protein, the heterodimer gHgL serves as a fusion regulator, and gB is a class III viral fusion protein. Sequential interactions among these glycoproteins are thought to trigger the virus to fuse at the right place and time. Structural studies of these glycoproteins from multiple alphaherpesviruses has enabled the design and interpretation of functional studies. The structures of gD in a receptor-bound and in an unliganded form reveal a conformational change in the C terminus of the gD ectodomain upon receptor binding that may serve as a signal for fusion. By mapping neutralizing antibodies to the gHgL structures and constructing interspecies chimeric forms of gHgL, interaction sites for both gD and gB on gHgL have been proposed. A comparison of the postfusion structure of gB and an alternative conformation of gB visualized using cryo-electron tomography suggests that gB undergoes substantial refolding to execute membrane fusion. Although these structures have provided excellent insights into the entry mechanism, many questions remain about how these viruses coordinate the interactions and conformational changes required for entry.
3. Navigating the Cytoplasm: Delivery of the Alphaherpesvirus Genome to the Nucleus
Gregory A. Smith
Herpesviruses virions are large and complex structures that deliver their genetic content to nuclei upon entering cells. This property is not unusual as many other viruses including the adenoviruses, orthomyxoviruses, papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, and retroviruses, do likewise. However, the means by which viruses in the alphaherpesvirinae subfamily accomplish this fundamental stage of the infectious cycle is tied to their defining ability to efficiently invade the nervous system. Fusion of the viral envelope with a cell membrane results in the deposition of the capsid, along with an assortment of tegument proteins, into the cytosol. Establishment of infection requires that the capsid traverse the cytosol, dock at a nuclear pore, and inject its genome into the nucleoplasm. Accumulating evidence indicates that the capsid is not the effector of this delivery process, but is instead shepherded by tegument proteins that remain capsid bound. At the same time, tegument proteins that are released from the capsid upon entry act to increase the susceptibility of the cell to the ensuing infection. Mucosal epithelial cells and neurons are both susceptible to alphaherpesvirus infection and, together, provide the niche to which these viruses have adapted. Although much has been revealed about the functions of de novo expressed tegument proteins during the late stages of assembly and egress, this chapter will specifically address the roles of tegument proteins brought into the cell with the incoming virion, and our current understanding of alphaherpesvirus genome delivery to nuclei.
4. The Fate of Incoming HSV-1 Genomes Entering the Nucleus
Oren Kobiler and Amichay Afriat
Herpesvirus genomes enter the eukaryotic nucleus as large linear double stranded DNA molecules that are free of any proteins (naked DNA). Once inside the nucleus, the HSV-1 genomes immediately associate with proteins that will be instrumental in the organization and regulation of these genomes. These initial interactions are thought to determine the fate of the infecting genomes. In general, the host cell has evolved several mechanisms to suppress viral genomes and induce latent or abortive infections. On the other hand, the virus has evolved to use viral and cellular factors to promote lytic infection. Recent findings suggest that not all viral genomes in the infected nucleus will develop progeny and that not all genetically identical cells will support successful virus propagation. Thus, the decision between different fates of infection is determined at both single-cell and single-genome levels. Here we summarize current knowledge on the conditions and interactions that lead to each outcome and discuss the unknown determinants.
Orkide O. Koyuncu, Lynn W. Enquist and Esteban A. Engel
In vertebrates, the nervous system (NS) is composed of a peripheral collection of neurons (the peripheral nervous system, PNS), a central set found in the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system, CNS). The NS is protected by rather complicated multi-layer barriers that allow access to nutrients and facilitate contact with the peripheral tissues, but block entry of pathogens and toxins. Virus infections usually begin in peripheral tissues and if these barriers are weakened, they can spread into the PNS and more rarely into the CNS. Most viral infections of the NS are opportunistic or accidental pathogens that gain access via the bloodstream (e.g., HIV and various arboviruses). But a few have evolved to enter the NS efficiently by invading neurons directly and by exploiting neuronal cell biology (e.g., rhabdoviruses and alphaherpesviruses). Most NS infections are devastating and difficult to manage. Remarkably, the alphaherpesviruses (α-HVs) establish life-long quiescent infections in the PNS, with rare but often serious CNS pathology. In this chapter, we will focus on how α-HVs gain access to and spread in the NS, with particular emphasis on bidirectional transport and spread within and between neurons and neural circuits, which is regulated by complex viral-host protein interactions. Finally, we will describe the wide use of α-HVs as tools to study nerve connectivity and function in animal models.
6. Alphaherpesvirus Latency and Reactivation with a Focus on Herpes Simplex Virus
Nancy M Sawtell and Richard L Thompson
We are at an interesting time in the understanding of alpha herpesvirus latency and reactivation and their implications to human disease. Conceptual advances have come from both animal and neuronal culture models. This chapter focuses on the concept that the tegument protein and viral transactivator VP16 plays a major role in the transition from latency to the lytic cycle. During acute infection, regulation of VP16 transactivation balances spread in the nervous system, establishment of latent infections and virulence. Reactivation is dependent on this transactivator to drive entry into the lytic cycle. In vivo de novo expression of VP16 protein is mediated by sequences conferring pre-immediate early transcription embedded in the normally leaky late promoter. In vitro, alternate mechanisms regulating VP16 expression in the context of latency have come from the SCG neuron culture model and include the concepts that (i) generalized transcriptional derepression of the viral genome and sequestration of VP16 in the cytoplasm for ~48 hours (Phase I) precedes and is required for VP16-dependent reactivation (Phase II); and (ii) a histone methyl/phospho switch during Phase I is required for Phase II reactivation. The challenge to the field is reconciling these data into a unified model of virus reactivation.
7. Host Innate Immune Response and Viral Immune Evasion During Alphaherpesvirus Infection
Krystal K. Lum and Ileana M. Cristea
Both the development of the mammalian innate immune system and the antagonistic strategies acquired by alphaherpesviruses to dismantle it have been shaped by co-evolving virus-host interactions over millions of years. Here, we review mechanisms employed by mammalian cells to detect pathogen molecules, such as viral glycoproteins and nucleic acids, and induce innate immune signaling upon infection with alphaherpesviruses. We further explore strategies acquired by these viruses to bypass immune detection and activation, thereby supporting virus replication and spread. Finally, we discuss the contributions of advanced 'omics' and microscopy methods to these discoveries in immune signaling and highlight emerging technologies that can help to further our understanding of the dynamic interplay between host innate immune responses and virus immune evasion.
Elizabeth B. Draganova, Michael K. Thorsen and Ekaterina E. Heldwein
During viral replication, herpesviruses utilize a unique strategy, termed nuclear egress, to translocate capsids from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. This initial budding step transfers a newly formed capsid from within the nucleus, too large to fit through nuclear pores, through the inner nuclear membrane to the perinuclear space. The perinuclear enveloped virion must then fuse with the outer nuclear membrane to be released into the cytoplasm for further maturation, undergoing budding once again at the trans
-Golgi network or early endosomes, and ultimately exit the cell non-lytically to spread infection. This first budding process is mediated by two conserved viral proteins, UL31 and UL34, that form a heterodimer called the nuclear egress complex (NEC). This chapter focuses on what we know about how the NEC mediates capsid transport to the perinuclear space, including steps prior to and after this budding event. Additionally, we discuss the involvement of other viral proteins in this process and how NEC-mediated budding may be regulated during infection.
9. Tegument Assembly, Secondary Envelopment and Exocytosis
Ian B. Hogue
Alphaherpesvirus tegument assembly, secondary envelopment, and exocytosis processes are understood in broad strokes, but many of the individual steps in this pathway, and their molecular and cell biological details, remain unclear. Viral tegument and membrane proteins form an extensive and robust protein interaction network, such that essentially any structural protein can be deleted, yet particles are still assembled, enveloped, and released from infected cells. We conceptually divide the tegument proteins into three groups: conserved inner and outer teguments that participate in nucleocapsid and membrane contacts, respectively; and 'middle' tegument proteins, consisting of some of the most abundant tegument proteins that serve as central hubs in the protein interaction network, yet which are unique to the alphaherpesviruses. We then discuss secondary envelopment, reviewing the tegument-membrane contacts and cellular factors that drive this process. We place this viral process in the context of cell biological processes, including the endocytic pathway, ESCRT machinery, autophagy, secretory pathway, intracellular transport, and exocytosis mechanisms. Finally, we speculate about potential relationships between cellular defenses against oligomerizing or aggregating membrane proteins and the envelopment and egress of viruses.
10. Alphaherpesvirus Vaccines
Clare Burn Aschner and Betsy C. Herold
Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for the alphaherpesviruses including varicella zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 have been the focus of enormous preclinical and clinical research. A live viral vaccine for prevention of chickenpox and a subunit therapeutic vaccine to prevent zoster are highly successful. In contrast, progress towards the development of effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines against HSV-1 and HSV-2 has met with limited success. This chapter provides an overview of the successes and failures, the different types of immune responses elicited by various vaccine modalities, and the need to reconsider the preclinical models and immune correlates of protection against HSV.
11. Oncolytic HSV Vectors and Anti-Tumor Immunity
Joseph C. Glorioso, Justus B. Cohen, William F. Goins, Bonnie Hall, Joseph W. Jackson, Gary Kohanbash, Nduka Amankulor, Balveen Kaur, Michael A. Caligiuri, E. Antonio Chiocca, Eric C. Holland and Christophe Quéva
The therapeutic promise of oncolytic viruses (OVs) rests on their ability to both selectively kill tumor cells and induce anti-tumor immunity. The potential of tumors to be recognized and eliminated by an effective anti-tumor immune response has been spurred on by the discovery that immune checkpoint inhibition can overcome tumor-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) exhaustion and provide durable responses in multiple tumor indications. OV-mediated tumor destruction is now recognized as a powerful means to assist in the development of anti-tumor immunity for two important reasons: (i) OVs, through the elicitation of an anti-viral response and the production of type I interferon, are potent stimulators of inflammation and can be armed with transgenes to further enhance anti-tumor immune responses; and (ii) lytic activity can promote the release of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and tumor neoantigens that function as in situ tumor-specific vaccines to elicit adaptive immunity. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (oHSVs) are among the most widely studied OVs for the treatment of solid malignancies, and Amgen's oHSV Imlygic® for the treatment of melanoma is the only OV approved in major markets. Here we describe important biological features of HSV that make it an attractive OV, clinical experience with HSV-based vectors, and strategies to increase applicability to cancer treatment.
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(EAN: 9781913652555 9781913652562 Subjects: [genomics] [microbiology] [molecular microbiology] [virology] )