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Apple Replant Disease: Causes and Mitigation Strategies

Authors: Traud WinkelmannInstitute of Horticultural Production Systems, Section Woody Plant and Propagation Physiology, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany Kornelia SmallaInstitute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics, Julius Kühn-Institut, Messeweg 11/12, D-38104 Braunschweig, Germany Wulf AmelungInstitute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation, Division Soil Science, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 13, D-53115 Bonn, Germany Gerhard BaabCompetence Center of Horticulture, DLR Rheinpfalz, Campus Klein Altendorf 2, D-53359 Rheinbach, Germany Gisela Grunewaldt-StöckerInstitute of Horticultural Production Systems, Section Phytomedicine, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany Xorla KanfraInstitute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics, Julius Kühn-Institut, Messeweg 11/12, D-38104 Braunschweig, Germany Rainer MeyhöferInstitute of Horticultural Production Systems, Section Phytomedicine, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany Stefanie ReimInstitute for Breeding Research on Fruit Crops, Julius Kühn-Institut, Pillnitzer Platz 3a, D-01326 Dresden, Germany Michaela SchmitzDepartment of Applied Science, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg, Von-Liebig-Str. 20, D-53359 Rheinbach, Germany Doris VetterleinInstitute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Soil Sciences, Martin-Luther Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Seckendorff-Platz 3, D-06120 Halle/Saale, Germany Andreas WredeDepartment of Horticulture, Landwirtschafts-kammer Schleswig-Holstein, Thiensen 16, D-25373 Ellerhoop, Germany Sebastian ZühlkeInstitute of Environmental Research (INFU), Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Chair of Environmental Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universität Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 6, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany Jürgen GrunewaldtInstitute of Plant Genetics, Unit Molecular Plant Breeding, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany Stefan WeißInstitute of Horticultural Production Systems, Section Woody Plant and Propagation Physiology, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany Michael SchloterResearch Unit for Comparative Microbiome Analysis, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany
Abstract:
Open-access article
After replanting apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) on the same site severe growth suppressions, and a decline in yield and fruit quality are observed in all apple producing areas worldwide. The causes of this complex phenomenon, called apple replant disease (ARD), are only poorly understood up to now which is in part due to inconsistencies in terms and methodologies. Therefore we suggest the following definition for ARD: ARD describes a harmfully disturbed physiological and morphological reaction of apple plants to soils that faced alterations in their (micro-) biome due to the previous apple cultures. The underlying interactions likely have multiple causes that extend beyond common analytical tools in microbial ecology. They are influenced by soil properties, faunal vectors, and trophic cascades, with genotype-specific effects on plant secondary metabolism, particularly phytoalexin biosynthesis. Yet, emerging tools allow to unravel the soil and rhizosphere (micro-) biome, to characterize alterations of habitat quality, and to decipher the plant reactions. Thereby, deep insights into the reactions taking place at the root rhizosphere interface will be gained. Counteractions are suggested, taking into account that culture management should emphasize on improving soil microbial and faunal diversity as well as habitat quality rather than focus on soil disinfection.
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