Gut Microbiome: The Role in Neurodevelopment
Surajit Pathak, Suhanya Veronica Prasad, Francesco Marotta, Woo-Sik Jeong, Ramachandran Murugesan and Antara Banerjee
from: Microbiota: Current Research and Emerging Trends (Edited by: Takashi Matsumoto and Yoshio Yamaoka,). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2019) Pages: 69-86.
The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a dynamic relationship in the body which functions to maintain homeostasis. Increasing evidence implicates the significance of gut microbes in neurodevelopment and behavior. These indigenous organisms communicate to the brain via multiple routes which include neural and humoral pathways. Modulations of the commensal microbes have been found to have deleterious effects on the physiological functioning of the brain. Considerably, over the past decade investigations on the complexity and diversity of microorganisms that colonize the gut exhibited profound impacts on cognitive processes and social conduct. The human microbiome project established in 2008 enables understanding of the comprehensive characteristics and role of microbes in the health and disease state of the brain. The microbial metabolites, cytokines, peptides, and neurotransmitters produced in the gut enhance the brain response. The crosstalk between the host mucosal system and the intestinal microbiome has been studied in various neurological diseases. In this review we highlight the role of the microbiota in normal brain development and dysfunction leading to several diseases. Gaining a better understanding of this bidirectional pathway can provide an insight into innovative and therapeutic strategies for neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders read more ...