Microbiota: Current Research and Emerging Trends | Book
Caister Academic Press
and Yoshio Yamaoka1
1Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University, Japan; 2Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology Section, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
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The human microbiota consists of a diverse collection of microbes including bacteria, archaea, viruses and eukaryotes. These organisms carry out a variety of functions that are vital to human health and well-being. One example is the prevention of bacterial infections by commensal bacterial in the gut. In recent years research has demonstrated a link between imbalances in the gut microbiota in early life and the development of obesity and allergic diseases in later life. The mechanisms of this and how diet, life-style factors and ageing influence the composition and activity of human microbiota are other areas of active research. The application of new technologies has revolutionised research initiatives providing new insights into the dynamics of these complex microbial communities and their role in health and disease.
In this timely book expert international authors review selected hot-topics in this area to provide an up-to-date overview. Topics covered include: effect of ageing and diet; dysbiosis as an environmental factor; beneficial effects of probiotics on infants and children with dysbiosis; metaproteomics of the gut microbiota; gut microbiome and neuro development; the link between oral health and neurological disease; and the influence of the gut microbiome composition on GI tract cancer.
The book is essential reading for everyone working with human microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics from the PhD student to the experienced scientist.
Table of contents
Nuria Salazar, Sonia González, Alicja M. Nogacka, David Rios-Covián, Silvia Arboleya, Miguel Gueimonde and Clara G. de los Reyes-Gavilán
The microbial community inhabiting our intestine, known as "microbiota", and the ensemble of their genomes (microbiome) regulate important functions of the host, being essential for health maintenance. The recent development of next generation sequencing (NGS) methods has greatly facilitated the study of the microbiota, and has contributed to evidence of the strong influence exerted by age and diet. However, the precise way in which the diet and its components modify the functionality of the intestinal microbiome is far from being completely known. Changes in the intestinal microbiota occur during ageing, frequently accompanied by physiological changes of the digestive tract, modification of dietary patterns, and impairment of the immune system. Establishing nutritional strategies aiming to counterbalance the specific alterations taking place in the microbiota during aging would contribute to improved health status in the elderly. This chapter will analyse changes appearing in the intestinal microbiota from adulthood to old age, and their association with dietary patterns and lifestyle factors.
2. Dysbiosis in Infants is an Important Environmental Factor of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Yuichiro Yamashiro, Ravinder Nagpal, Hiromichi Shoji, Naoto Nishizaki and Satoru Nagata
The original concept of the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) was 'fetal origins of adult disease' but it is now revised as that 'early life environmental factors can have lifelong effects, and can manifest as disease in later life', based on the subsequent various studies. Recent studies demonstrated that gut microbiota plays an important role in human health and disease development. In particular, the aberrant bacterial community (dysbiosis) in early life can lead to diseases, such as noncommunicable diseases, through an altered development of the immune system and metabolic condition. Therefore, the microbiota should be considered as an important environmental factor for DOHaD.
3. Beneficial Effects of Probiotics for Infants and Children with Dysbiosis
Yuichiro Yamashiro, Hiromichi Shoji, Naoto Nishizaki and Satoru Nagata
Epidemiological studies have established a clear correlation between factors that disrupt the intestinal bacterial community (dysbiosis) early in life, and diseases and metabolic conditions associated with altered development of the immune system. Recent studies have also described interventions that modify host microbial composition, suggesting that overcoming microbial imbalances during childhood may serve as a preventive therapeutic approach. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when taken in a sufficient amount, have a benefit for the ingesting host. The use of probiotics is one approach to preventing and regulating dysbiosis in infants and children. The biomedical literature has recently featured an increasing number of prospective, randomized, controlled trials indicating that probiotics can be employed as an effective strategy for the treatment of a variety of diseases affecting children. This review will focus on systematic reviews highlighting the efficacy of probiotics in treating pediatric illnesses such as pre-term low-birth-weight infants with necrotizing enterocolitis and infection, infants born by caesarean section with allergy, children with mucositis, and children with obesity. Our own trial testing a probiotic supplement for use by healthy children also will be described.
4. Metaproteomics Approach to Gut Microbiota in Health and Disease
Bernardo Petriz, Filipe Moura and Octávio Franco
Phylotype profiling is conducted in a variety of biomedical research areas with significant impact on human health. So far, metagenomics has provided meaningful data linking the microbiota profile to the host health. However, profiling of the gut microbiome is limited to the identification of its constituents and their diversity. However, the complex molecular interactions between the microbiome and the gut environment affect the host metabolism, immunity, and homeostasis. These interactions are being investigated by metaproteomics and metabolomics, as analytical approaches in the identification of large-scale proteins and metabolites, providing informative details and functional aspects of the microbiota and the gut environment. As a complementary approach to metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data, the metaproteomic analysis may also provide some new insights into the influence of the gut microbiota over the host biology. Considering the significant clinical potential of this field, the metaproteomic studies in the gut microbiota are still unexplored. In this chapter, we will present the main aspects and limitations of metaproteomics, as well as the perspectives in the analysis of the gut microbiome proteins in health and disease.
5. Gut Microbiome: The Role in Neurodevelopment
Surajit Pathak, Suhanya Veronica Prasad, Francesco Marotta, Woo-Sik Jeong, Ramachandran Murugesan and Antara Banerjee
The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a dynamic relationship in the body which functions to maintain homeostasis. Increasing evidence implicates the significance of gut microbes in neurodevelopment and behavior. These indigenous organisms communicate to the brain via multiple routes which include neural and humoral pathways. Modulations of the commensal microbes have been found to have deleterious effects on the physiological functioning of the brain. Considerably, over the past decade investigations on the complexity and diversity of microorganisms that colonize the gut exhibited profound impacts on cognitive processes and social conduct. The human microbiome project established in 2008 enables understanding of the comprehensive characteristics and role of microbes in the health and disease state of the brain. The microbial metabolites, cytokines, peptides, and neurotransmitters produced in the gut enhance the brain response. The crosstalk between the host mucosal system and the intestinal microbiome has been studied in various neurological diseases. In this review we highlight the role of the microbiota in normal brain development and dysfunction leading to several diseases. Gaining a better understanding of this bidirectional pathway can provide an insight into innovative and therapeutic strategies for neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders.
6. An Insight into the Link between Oral Health and Neurological Diseases
Surajit Pathak, Suhanya Veronica Prasad, Sushmitha Sriramulu, Ganesan Jothimani, Ramachandran Murugesan, Francesco Marotta and Antara Banerjee
The oral cavity is host to a diverse population of microorganisms, and it significantly contributes to the health of an individual. An imbalance or disruption to the oral ecosystem can lead to detrimental health complications. There are approximately 700 different species found, of which both mutualistic and pathogenic microbes are present. The most abundant genera in the mouth include Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, Haemophilus, and Porphyromonas. The human oral microbiome database (HOMD) was created to provide comprehensive information on the prokaryote species. Currently, about 400 oral taxa have been sequenced. The oral mucosa, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid provide proteins that support microbial growth. The relationship between the oral microbiome and neurological diseases has attracted much attention over the recent years. Cases have been reported on the association of certain types of stroke and the presence of oral bacteria. Predominantly Streptococcus mutants are the causal agent of haemorrhagic stroke, these mutants are found in one third of patients who have had stroke. This strain of bacteria is a major contributor of gum disease and tooth decay. It degrades the oral structure and attaches itself to vulnerable red blood cells and circulates to the brain, where it weakens the arterial walls reducing the blood flow and thereby causing stroke. Interestingly, scientific findings have shown the occurrence of oral pathogens in Alzheimer patients,with about a 7-fold higher density compared to cognitively normal controls. The bacteria produce proteins and microbial toxins encoded by the genes which disrupt the blood-brain barrier inducing various complications. Local inflammatory responses involving the production of proinflammatory cytokines like IL-6, and IL-1β have been implicated by these oral bacteria in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Recently emerged next generation sequencing and bioinformatics tools help to expand knowledge of the composition and function of the oral microbiome. Assessment of oral pathogens can be utilized as biomarkers for diagnosis of diseases. In this chapter, we will emphasise how oral microbiota cross the blood-brain barrier and can affect brain health.
7. The Influence of Gut Microbiota's Composition on the Carcinogenesis of Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers
Vo Phuoc Tuan, Boldbaatar Gantuya, Takashi Matsumoto and Yoshio Yamaoka
Interest in the role of microbiota in human health has increased over the last several decades. Current advanced techniques have made it possible to study the compositions and the functions of microbial communities in humans, especially in the gastrointestinal tract where the majority of bacteria reside. The disturbances of these communities, so-called "dysbiosis", have been implicated to be associated with gastrointestinal tract cancers; however, the patterns or the role of the dysbiosis are still not yet fully understood. Recently, several microbiota-based therapeutic approaches have been developed; however, the ability to apply as well as the efficacy of these treatments in clinical practice have still remained to be controversial. From this context, this chapter aims to summarize the recent findings, focusing on the bacterial dysbiosis in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly in the oesophagus, stomach and colon and we discuss their roles in carcinogenesis. In addition, we describe the potential application of therapeutic targeting microbiota and discuss the future trend of microbiota studies.
How to buy this book
(EAN: 9781910190937 9781910190944 Subjects: [environmental microbiology] [medical microbiology] [probiotics] )