Tracing of Enteropathogenic Yersinia
from: Yersinia: Systems Biology and Control (Edited by: Elisabeth Carniel and B. Joseph Hinnebusch). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2012)
Yersiniosis caused by Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis is primarily acquired via contaminated food or water. However, several difficulties have been associated with isolating pathogenic Yersinia strains from food and environmental samples. The detection rates of enteropathogenic yersiniae in animal reservoirs, foods and in the environment have been shown to be clearly higher by PCR than by culturing. In epidemiological studies, subtyping of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains is necessary to identify infection sources and transmission routes. A number of different DNA-based methods have been used in molecular typing of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is so far the most frequently used typing method for Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis because it is one of the most powerful tools to subtype these two pathogens. Pigs have shown to be the main reservoir of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains because of the high prevalence of these strains in the tonsils and the high similarity of pig strains to human strains. However, the transmission routes from pigs to humans, especially to young children, are still unknown. Contaminated fresh produce and drinking water have been demonstrated as important sources of human Y. pseudotuberculosis infections but yet the transmission routes have remained unclear read more ...