Challenges of Multiplexed Detection: Detection of Pathogens in Water and Wastewater Using Microarrays
Timothy M. Straub
from: Environmental Microbiology: Current Technology and Water Applications (Edited by: Keya Sen and Nicholas J. Ashbolt). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2011)
For waterborne pathogen monitoring, regulatory agencies have traditionally focused on developing a single method for an existing or emerging pathogen in water supplies. However, the ability to use a single method to determine all potential pathogens or indicators in a water supply would be particularly advantageous. Such an approach has three major hurdles: 1) sensitive detection of highly dilute pathogens in a water supply, 2) specific detection of pathogens from non-pathogenic near-neighbors, and 3) multiplexed strategies that preserve the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. This chapter describes how microarrays, a series of unique nucleic acid sequences arrayed on a suitable surface, allow through hybridization, the detection of multiple genetic sequences from different viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and other emerging pathogens. Through the context of a complete method, including the recovering of pathogens from water sources, this chapter is designed to introduce the reader to microarrays, challenges of labeling pathogen nucleic acids recovered from water samples, and specific microarray applications related to waterborne pathogen monitoring read more ...