The Needle in a Haystack: Detection of Microbes in Source and Drinking Water by Molecular Methods
from: Environmental Microbiology: Current Technology and Water Applications (Edited by: Keya Sen and Nicholas J. Ashbolt). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2011)
Molecular techniques based on genomics, proteomics and transcriptomics are rapidly growing as complete microbial genome sequences are becoming available, and advances are made in sequencing technology, analytical biochemistry, microfluidics and data analysis. While the clinical and food industries are increasingly adapting these techniques, there appear to be major challenges in detecting health-related microbes in source and treated drinking waters. This is due in part to the low density of pathogens in water, necessitating significant processing of large volume samples. In this chapter, the state-of-the-art techniques available for pathogen detection and characterization from water are discussed. From the vast panorama of available techniques, only those that are finding a place in the water industry are presented. Quantitative PCR is the prime focus of this chapter, along with protein detection and immunological approaches, with other molecular techniques such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and microarrays being the focus of other chapters. A detailed section on future trends is also included read more ...