Diseases Caused by Acarines
Heinz Sager and Hany M. Elsheikha
from: Essentials of Veterinary Parasitology (Edited by: Hany M. Elsheikha and Naveed Ahmed Khan). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2011)
Mites are ectoparasites of a wide range of birds, domesticated and wild animal species. Some have a zoonotic significance. Mites are members of the phylum Arthropoda. Demodex spp and Psorobia spp are host specific, and these species will not cross-infest other hosts. However mange mites (Chorioptes spp, Psoroptes spp and Sarcoptes spp) are no host specific and can cross-infest a large number of hosts. Mites live on the host continuously and infest other animals by contact. The life cycles of mites are all slightly different because some burrow, whereas others live on the surface of the skin. Sarcoptes spp. and Notoedres cati females burrow in the skin and deposit eggs. The eggs hatch into six-legged larvae, which develop and molt to eight-legged protonymphs and tritonymphs, which develop and molt into adults. The entire cycle requires 9 to 17 days. The ticks found on domesticated animals are not host specific, although they do have host preferences, and their distribution is subject to environmental conditions. Ticks are identified as being soft or hard ticks. The hard ticks are generally classified as one-, two-, or three-host ticks. Three-host ticks may complete the cycle in a short period (Rhipicephalus spp.), whereas other ticks (Dermacentor spp.) require 2 years, with 1 year between each stage before they reattach to a host read more ...