HIV-1 Vaccine Development
Barton F. Haynes, Georgia D. Tomaras, Hua-Xin Liao and Andrew J. McMichael
from: Advanced Vaccine Research Methods for the Decade of Vaccines (Edited by: Fabio Bagnoli and Rino Rappuoli). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2015) Pages: 335-358.
Development of an AIDS vaccine is a global priority. In spite of one vaccine efficacy trial that showed an estimated 31% efficacy, other efficacy trials have failed. Some chronically HIV-infected individuals are able to make antibodies that broadly neutralize many HIV strains, but these antibodies are not readily made in response to vaccination. Broadly neutralizing antibodies have unusual traits such as autoreactivity and long heavy chain third complementarity determining regions, traits in B cell receptors that lead to tolerance control of B cell expansion. Another roadblock for HIV vaccine development comes from HIV integration into the host genome soon after transmission, and establishment of a latent pool of infected CD4 T cells that is resistant to both immune responses and anti-retroviral drugs. Finally, the high mutation rate of HIV leads to escape from both T and B cell responses, and necessitates vaccine induction of a polyclonal protective response. Thus, development of an HIV vaccine faces unprecedented problems, and is requiring the implementation of novel strategies to attempt to circumvent the extraordinary challenges being faced in HIV vaccine development read more ...