Else Marie Agger and Peter Andersen
from: Advanced Vaccine Research Methods for the Decade of Vaccines (Edited by: Fabio Bagnoli and Rino Rappuoli). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2015) Pages: 305-334.
Every four seconds in the world one person develops tuberculosis and someone dies from the disease every 20-30 seconds. Once considered a conquered plague, tuberculosis remains a major cause of human mortality and morbidity. The protective efficacy of the currently licensed vaccine, BCG, is highly variable and a new effective vaccine is considered the most effective way of controlling the disease. In 1997, NIAID hosted a workshop entitled "Tuberculosis vaccines: how close to human testing". In only fifteen years we have witnessed remarkable progress with thirteen new tuberculosis vaccines currently in various stages of clinical development and a plethora of other candidates in preclinical development. The vaccine candidates are designed either as whole-organism live mycobacterial vaccines to replace BCG or as subunit vaccines to boost BCG-induced immunity. With some of these second-generation tuberculosis vaccines approaching phase III efficacy testing in humans, the coming years will be critical for the prospects of a new tuberculosis vaccine read more ...