The Importance of Cell Mediated Immunity for Bacterial Vaccines
Alison G. Murphy and Rachel M. McLoughlin
from: Advanced Vaccine Research Methods for the Decade of Vaccines (Edited by: Fabio Bagnoli and Rino Rappuoli). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2015) Pages: 219-250.
Despite the fact that vaccines have been pivotal in controlling many serious diseases, traditional vaccine strategies are not without limitations. Current challenges include the development of novel strategies to confer protection against antigenically hypervariable pathogens, opportunistic pathogens, rapidly evolving anti-microbial resistant pathogens and non-cultivatable pathogens. In addition, some recently licensed vaccines offer only limited coverage (e.g. pneumococcal vaccines) and well-established vaccines have displayed decreasing immunogenicity (e.g. pertussis vaccine). Continued development of effective anti-bacterial vaccines will rely upon a clear understanding of the correlates of immunity against distinct pathogens. During the course of natural infection both cellular and humoral immune responses are utilised, therefore vaccines should induce antigen specific responses by both arms of immunity. Novel anti-bacterial vaccines should strive to activate adaptive cellular immunity, i.e. antigen-specific T cells, due to their well documented roles in induction of antibody isotype switching, cytolytic functions and regulation of phagocyte responses. The development of such vaccines will require a more lucid understanding of the contribution played by specific T-cell subsets in mediating immunity to natural infection. Additionally, inducing T cell responses via immunisation will require further investigation into the use of appropriate adjuvants, which have the capacity to direct specific T cell responses. New vaccines, which specifically target cellular immunity in addition to humoral immunity, maybe key to providing protection against bacterial infections for which antibiotics are currently the only available treatment. Furthermore, the incorporation of elements targeting cellular immunity in currently licensed vaccines could potentially improve their efficacy read more ...