Novel Strategies of Vaccine Administration: The Science Behind Epidermal and Dermal Immunization
Béhazine Combadière and Hélène Perrin
from: Advanced Vaccine Research Methods for the Decade of Vaccines (Edited by: Fabio Bagnoli and Rino Rappuoli). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2015) Pages: 157-186.
Following the era of vaccinia virus intradermal vaccination, the past two decades have seen interest focusing once again on the cutaneous routes of vaccination. The definition of the skin antigen-presenting cell (APC) phenotype and its function, gene regulation and interaction with the skin microenvironment and inflammatory reactions has added further complexity to the skin immune system. Indeed, activating the appropriate arm of the immune system, that which induces protection, is now one of the major challenges to be faced in the development of vaccines against infectious diseases. Numerous concepts for vaccine delivery to the skin have been developed. However, they have not yet met expectations: this challenge remains to be met by using innovative approaches in immunology and vaccine design. Therefore, understanding the tight skin molecular and cellular network might refresh our knowledge on skin immunization procedures and vaccine development and have important impact on future vaccination strategies read more ...