Mucosal Innate Immune Response
from: Microbial Subversion of Immunity: Current Topics (Edited by: Peter J. Lachmann and M.B.A. Oldstone). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2006)
The innate immune system provides the first line of defence against invading micro-organisms. Most infectious agents infect their host through a mucosal surface, be it the digestive, respiratory or reproductive tract. The innate immune system comprises cellular activities stimulated by the recognition of pathogens by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) together with a multitude of secreted soluble antimicrobial factors. In order to protect themselves from this array of defences and to promote survival within the host, micro-organisms have developed a number of different counter measures. These include modification of bacterial cell membranes or cell walls, mimicry of host cell membrane lipids, secretion of proteins or enzymes that inhibit or degrade antimicrobial factors, and down-regulation of expression of antimicrobial substances. This chapter describes the various strategies adopted by both the host and invader on the battleground of mucosal surfaces read more ...