Stress Responses in Salmonella
Suzanne Humphrey, Tom J. Humphrey and Mark A. Jepson
from: Stress Response in Microbiology (Edited by: Jose M. Requena). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2012)
Salmonella enterica are the causative agents of a spectrum of diseases, including enteric fever and self-limiting gastroenteritis and remain significant foodborne pathogens throughout both the developed and developing worlds. The ability to actively invade and reside within gut epithelia and macrophages is an important process in the establishment of Salmonella infection, generating localised inflammatory responses and facilitating systemic spread of the pathogen within the host. Many environments, including food matrices, the external environment and conditions within the host, present a range of stressful challenges that Salmonella must overcome in order to survive and establish infection. Salmonella utilise a diverse range of stress response strategies, including expression of alternative RNA polymerase sigma factors, uptake of compatible solutes, increased expression of genes encoding uptake or efflux pumps, and production of proteins with roles in protecting and repairing stress-induced damage, in order to facilitate their survival in suboptimal and stressful growth environments. Additionally, the ability of Salmonella to undergo morphological changes during stress exposure and rapidly recover from stress conditions commonly encountered within food matrices represents a pertinent issue for food processing and public health read more ...