Cell Wall Assembly and Physiology
from: Staphylococcus: Genetics and Physiology (Edited by: Greg A. Somerville). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2016) Pages: 133-170.
Staphylococcus aureus has a typical Gram-positive cell wall, which is composed of a thick peptidoglycan layer, cell surface proteins, teichoic acids and carbohydrate polymers. The functions of these different cell wall components are diverse: the peptidoglycan layer protects bacteria from osmotic lysis, cell surface proteins are required for adhesion, biofilm formation and immune evasion, and teichoic acids help to protect bacteria from the action of cationic antimicrobial peptides. Proper assembly of the different cell wall structures is not only essential for the pathogenesis of S. aureus but also for bacterial growth, and several antimicrobial agents target the synthesis of key cell wall components. In this chapter, the synthesis pathways and functions of the diverse cell wall components of S. aureus will be summarized, along with the action of important cell wall targeting antibiotics and the respective bacterial resistance mechanisms read more ...