Staphylococcus: Clinical Significance in Animals
John Dustin Loy
from: Staphylococcus: Genetics and Physiology (Edited by: Greg A. Somerville). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2016) Pages: 45-66.
The staphylococci are important pathogens of a many animal species including domestic and wild mammals and birds. Many of the animal associated staphylococci have undergone extensive host adaptation to animals and specific body sites. Like human infections, infections in animals with staphylococci frequent the skin and mucous membranes and given the opportunity can cause severe invasive disease and septicemia. They also possess numerous virulence factors and mechanisms that enable a diverse number of clinical manifestations and disease syndromes in host species. The introduction of molecular phylogenetics into veterinary clinical microbiology has found diversity among what were thought to only be a handful of clinically important species, and significant taxonomic changes have occurred. Like human medicine, challenges are also being faced by veterinary clinicians as methicillin resistance is emerging in animal infections. This chapter describes the role of staphylococci in animal disease, important virulence factors associated with animal disease, treatment of significant veterinary infections, as well as antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci associated with animals