Global Regulators of Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Genes
from: Staphylococcus: Molecular Genetics (Edited by: Jodi Lindsay). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2008)
Staphylococci cause a great diversity of infections and have thus developed sophisticated mechanisms for eliciting infection in different environments. Staphylococcal infection requires the production of various virulence factors. The expression of these virulence factor genes is co-ordinated by global regulators. These regulators help bacteria to adapt to a hostile environment by producing factors enabling them to survive and subsequently to cause infection at the appropriate time. Several of these global virulence regulators, such as the Agr system, Sar and Sae, have been well characterised. Others, such as the Arl system, Sar homologues (Rot, MgrA, SarS, SarR, SarT, SarU, SarV, SarX, SarZ and TcaR), the Srr system and TRAP, require further study to determine their exact role in the virulence regulon. Several proteins and regulators with primary functions other than the regulation of virulence, such as Clp proteins, HtrA, MsrR, aconitase and CcpA, are also involved in regulating virulence, often through interactions with major virulence regulators. Other proteins, such as SvrA, Msa, CfvA and CfvB, regulate virulence, but their main function remains unknown read more ...