ADARs and the Viral Life Cycle
Sara Tomaselli, Federica Galeano, Franco Locatelli and Angela Gallo
from: RNA Editing: Current Research and Future Trends (Edited by: Stefan Maas). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2013)
All viruses that have dsRNA structures at any stages of their life cycle may potentially undergo RNA editing mediated by ADAR enzymes. Indeed, a number of reports describe A-to-I sequence changes in viral genomes and/or transcripts that are consistent with ADAR activity. These modifications can appear as either hyperediting during persistent viral infections or specific RNA editing events in viral dsRNAs. It is now well established that ADAR enzymes can affect virus interaction with their host in both an editing-dependent and -independent manner, with ADARs playing for both sides: the host and the virus. Despite the discovery of editing events on viral RNA dates back to thirty years ago, the biological consequences of A-to-I changes during viral infection is still far to be completely elucidated. In particular, the proviral role played by ADAR1, partly due to PKR inhibition, together with its antiviral effect following hyperediting events, put in evidence the complex role played by RNA editing in the regulation of viral infections and innate immune response read more ...