Immune Evasion in Genital Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer: Role of Cytokines and Chemokines
Sigrun Smola-Hess and Herbert Pfister
from: Papillomavirus Research: From Natural History To Vaccines and Beyond (Edited by: M. Saveria Campo). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2006)
Epidemiological and molecular studies of the past 20 years have provided evidence that persistent infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is the main aetiological factor for development of cervical cancer. Most genital papillomavirus infections are cleared within one year. Yet, infections persist in up to one percent of immunocompetent individuals and progress to cancer. Cancer development usually takes a long period of time, eventually requiring decades. The increased incidences of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL, variously named cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN) and cervical cancer in immunocompromised individuals strongly support a central role of the immune system in controlling HPV infection and progression. This chapter focuses on cytokines and chemokines in genital papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer as major regulators of the immune response, and discusses their role in immune evasion read more ...