Pro- and Prebiotics for Oral Health
Svante Twetman, Mette Rose Jørgensen and Mette Kirstine Keller
from: Probiotics and Prebiotics: Current Research and Future Trends (Edited by: Koen Venema and Ana Paula do Carmo). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2015) Pages: 417-428.
Recent insights in the importance of a natural microbial balance in the oral biofilm for maintaining health have brought a new concept to dentistry; to prevent ecologically disruptions rather than merely treating its consequences by restoring cavities. Consequently, an emerging interest in the use of probiotic bacteria for oral health is evident, albeit the local and systemic mechanisms of actions are still largely unknown. This chapter provides a brief background on the role of the oral biofilm in health and disease and examines the evidence for probiotic therapy within dentistry, based on clinical trials. Several studies have displayed an antagonistic role of probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria against salivary Streptococcus mutans and four studies have shown reduced caries incidence and root caries arrest. Other trials have reported beneficial effects on endpoints related to gingivitis and periodontitis such as plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, subgingival microbiota and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in gingival crevicular fluid. No adverse effects have been reported but further research is needed to confirm findings and strengthen the evidence before clinical recommendations can be advocated read more ...