The Art of Manipulation: Bacterial Type III Effectors and Their Plant Targets
from: Plant Pathogenic Bacteria: Genomics and Molecular Biology (Edited by: Robert W. Jackson). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2009)
A successful plant pathogen has to accomplish several tasks during infection of a plant host. It has to gain entry into the tissue, acquire nutrients, multiply, and spread to uninfected tissues or neighbouring plants. Pathogens have evolved different virulence factors to accomplish this. Key to this are bacterial effector proteins that are directly translocated into plant cells via a type III protein secretion system. These effectors are potent devices to manipulate the eukaryotic cell from within. Bacterial infections are antagonised by the plant which carries a sophisticated surveillance system to detect invading microbes and respond with defence reactions to prevent pathogen proliferation. The conflicting interests have spawned a complex pathogen-plant interaction network between effectors in pathogenic bacteria and protective plant defence systems. The net outcome is of grave importance for both interaction partners and the evolutionary pressure has led to the development of a large set of effectors in plant pathogenic bacteria which accomplish diverse virulence activities read more ...