Replication of Plant RNA viruses
Peter D. Nagy and Judit Pogany
from: Recent Advances in Plant Virology (Edited by: Carole Caranta, Miguel A. Aranda, Mark Tepfer and J.J. Lopez-Moya). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2011)
Among plant viruses, the positive-stranded RNA [(+)RNA] viruses are the largest group, and the most widespread. The central step in the infection cycle of (+)RNA viruses is RNA replication, which is carried out by virus-specific replicase complexes consisting of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, one or more auxiliary viral replication proteins, and a number of co-opted host factors. Viral replicase complexes assemble in specialized membranous compartments in infected cells. Sequestering the replicase complexes is not only helpful for rapid production of a large number of viral (+)RNA progeny, but it also facilitates avoiding recognition by the host's anti-viral surveillance system, and it provides protection from degradation of the viral RNA. Successful viral replication is followed by cell-to-cell and long-distance movement throughout the plant, as well as encapsidation of the (+)RNA progeny to facilitate transmission to new plants. This chapter provides an overview of our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms in plant (+)RNA virus replication. Recent significant progress in this research area is based on development of powerful in vivo and in vitro methods, including replicase assays, reverse genetic approaches, intracellular localization studies, genome-wide screens for co-opted host factors and the use of plant or yeast model hosts read more ...