Roles of Cis-acting Elements in Translation of Viral RNAs
W. Allen Miller, Jelena Kraft, Zhaohui Wang and Qiuling Fan
from: Recent Advances in Plant Virology (Edited by: Carole Caranta, Miguel A. Aranda, Mark Tepfer and J.J. Lopez-Moya). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2011)
Cis-acting signals regulate translation of viral RNAs to produce viral proteins at the appropriate levels and timing to maximize virus replication. Here we describe the cis-acting sequences that achieve this translational control via processes such as cap-dependent translation, leaky scanning to initiate translation at more than one start codon, ribosomal shunting, cap-independent translation initiation controlled from the 5' and/or 3' untranslated region, poly(A) tail-independent translation initiation, stop codon readthrough, and ribosomal frameshifting. The secondary structures and, in some cases, tertiary structures of the RNA sequences that control these events are described. We also discuss the mechanisms of the translation events facilitated by the cis-acting signals, and how they mesh with the overall replication strategies of the diverse viruses that employ these mechanisms read more ...