Molecular Techniques in Oral Microbial Taxonomy, Identification and Typing
Sirkka Asikainen and Maribasappa Karched
from: Molecular Oral Microbiology (Edited by: Anthony H. Rogers). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2008)
The rapid development of molecular techniques during the past decade has revolutionized the field of microbiology. Two issues are of profound importance. First, the discovery of phylogenetically informative DNA sequences, such as the 16S rRNA gene, radically changed the concept of bacterial relatedness and provided a universal system for bacterial identification and categorization. Second, it became possible to detect, identify, and type bacteria independent of their cultivability and, by these new means, to elucidate the diversity and spatial organization of complex oral bacterial communities. Of considerable benefit has been the fact that the same nucleic acid-based molecular approaches can be applied in all microbial environments, ranging from the oral cavity, to the surfaces of historical monuments, to the depths of open oceans. This has led to development of versatile PCR- and hybridization-based techniques that allow a rapid and convenient analysis of the bacterial contents of oral samples and offer previously unattainable possibilities for expanding studies on bacterial epidemiology and characterization. In particular, the emerging new microarray technology will facilitate great strides in understanding the structure and dynamics of oral bacterial communities and bacteria-host interactions, and will form the basis for developing novel diagnostics for oral infections read more ...