Caister Academic Press

Nanozymes for Biofilm Removal

Melanie Richards and Thomas Eugene Cloete
from: Nanotechnology in Water Treatment Applications (Edited by: T. Eugene Cloete, Michele de Kwaadsteniet, Marelize Botes and J. Manuel López-Romero). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2010)

Abstract

Sessile communities of bacteria encased in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are known as biofilms and causes serious problems in various areas, amongst other, the medical industry, industrial water settings, paper industry and food processing industry. Although various methods of biofilm control exist, these methods are not without limitations and often fail to remove biofilms from surfaces. Biofilms often show reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials or chemicals and chemical by-products may be toxic to the environment, whereas mechanical methods may be labour intensive and expensive due to down-time required to clean the system. This has led to a great interest in the enzymatic degradation of biofilms. Enzymes are highly selective and disrupt the structural stability of the biofilm EPS matrix. Various studies have focused on the enzymatic degradation of polysaccharides and proteins for biofilm detachment since these are the two dominant components of the EPS. Due to the structural role of proteins and polysaccharides in the EPS matrix, a combination of various proteases and polysaccharases may be successful in biofilm removal. The biodegradability and low toxicity of enzymes also make them attractive biofilm control agents. Regardless of all the advantages associated with enzymes, they also suffer from various drawbacks given that they are relatively expensive, show insufficient stability or activity under certain conditions, and cannot be reused. Various approaches are being used to increase the stability of enzymes, including enzyme modification, enzyme immobilization, protein engineering and medium engineering. Although these conventional methods have been used frequently to improve the stability of enzymes, various new techniques, such as self-immobilization of enzymes, the immobilization of enzymes on nano-scale structures and the production of single-enzyme nanoparticles, have been developed. Self-immobilization of enzymes entails the cross-linking of enzyme molecules with each other and yields final preparations consisting of essentially pure proteins and high concentrations of enzyme per unit volume. The activity, stability and efficiency of immobilized enzymes can be improved by reducing the size of the enzyme-carrier. Nano-scale carrier materials allow for high enzyme loading per unit mass, catalytic recycling and a reduced loss of enzyme activity. Furthermore, enzymes can be stabilized by producing single-enzyme nanoparticles consisting of single-enzyme molecules surrounded by a porous organic-inorganic network of less than a few nanometers thick. All these new technologies of enzyme stabilization make enzymes even more attractive alternatives to other biofilm removal and control agents read more ...
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