Microbiome: Effects of Ageing and Diet
Nuria Salazar, Sonia González, Alicja M. Nogacka, David Rios-Covián, Silvia Arboleya, Miguel Gueimonde and Clara G. de los Reyes-Gavilán
from: Microbiota: Current Research and Emerging Trends (Edited by: Takashi Matsumoto and Yoshio Yamaoka,). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2019) Pages: 1-31.
The microbial community inhabiting our intestine, known as "microbiota", and the ensemble of their genomes (microbiome) regulate important functions of the host, being essential for health maintenance. The recent development of next generation sequencing (NGS) methods has greatly facilitated the study of the microbiota, and has contributed to evidence of the strong influence exerted by age and diet. However, the precise way in which the diet and its components modify the functionality of the intestinal microbiome is far from being completely known. Changes in the intestinal microbiota occur during ageing, frequently accompanied by physiological changes of the digestive tract, modification of dietary patterns, and impairment of the immune system. Establishing nutritional strategies aiming to counterbalance the specific alterations taking place in the microbiota during aging would contribute to improved health status in the elderly. This chapter will analyse changes appearing in the intestinal microbiota from adulthood to old age, and their association with dietary patterns and lifestyle factors.