GeoChip Applications in Bioremediation Studies
Joy D. Van Nostrand and Jizhong Zhou
from: Microarrays: Current Technology, Innovations and Applications (Edited by: Zhili He). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2014)
Microarrays provide the ability to examine thousands of genes with a single test and overcome the limitations of other culture-independent approaches. Functional gene arrays (FGA) probe for structural genes involved in particular functions of interest. The most comprehensive FGA to date is the GeoChip array. These arrays targets tens of thousands of genes, from both cultured and uncultured microorganisms, involved in the geochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, metal resistance and reduction, energy processing, antibiotic resistance and contaminant degradation. The GeoChip arrays provide a sensitive and specific examination of microbial communities and have been used to examine microbial communities before, during and after in situ bioremediation at a variety of contaminated sites. This technology is well-suited for linking geochemical processes with microbial community function and structure and bioremediation-based studies have provided a greater understanding of the microbial communities involved in the biodegradation and bioremediation processes. This chapter provides a brief overview of GeoChip development and focuses on GeoChip studies examining bioremediation systems and other contaminated sites read more ...