Signaling Mechanisms in Prokaryotes
Mariano Martinez, Pedro M. Alzari and Gwénaëlle André-Leroux
from: Bacterial Membranes: Structural and Molecular Biology (Edited by: Han Remaut and Rémi Fronzes). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2014)
Adaptation to an environmental stress is essential for cell survival in all organisms. In regard to this, the plasmatic membrane plays a fundamental role as it is the first barrier that separates the hostile environment from the cytoplasmic content, where all living reactions occur. Most of the machinery dedicated to sense upstream the external changes and to transduce the signals through the cytoplasmic membrane - upon which signals trigger a committed response dowstream - is located at this special interface. This chapter is dedicated to describing the two major signalling systems found in prokaryotes: the so-called two-component systems and the eukaryotic-like serine/threonine/tyrosine protein kinases. We will focus on the basic aspects of these sensing machineries, their function, catalytic mechanism and regulation, and will extend, when possible, to more sophisticated features, such as the structural basis of the signal sensing and transduction per se, based on the most recent investigations read more ...