The Felid Immunodeficiency Viruses: Viral Cell Tropism and the Pathogenesis of Feline AIDS.
Brian J. Willett and Margaret J. Hosie
from: Lentiviruses and Macrophages: Molecular and Cellular Interactions (Edited by: Moira Desport). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2010)
Lentiviruses are widespread pathogens of primates, ungulates and felids. While the ungulate lentiviruses induce a disease state typical of a chronic inflammatory condition, the felid and primate lentiviruses induce an immunodeficiency characterised by a progressive depletion of CD4+ T helper cells. FIV infection of the domestic cat may lead to a spectrum of diseases, ranging from a rapid, acute-onset immunodeficiency to a chronic wasting disease with concomitant neuropathology and persistent recurring opportunistic infections. Here, we examine the host and viral determinants of FIV cell tropism and pathogenicity. The virus targets activated CD4+ T cells selectively by interactions with its primary receptor, CD134 and co-receptor, CXCR4. We discuss the impact of the virus-receptor interaction on the normal cellular function of the viral receptors and the cells on which they are expressed and assess how this contributes to pathogenicity, immunity to infection and the prospects for the development of FIV vaccines read more ...