Leishmania Modulates Toll-like Receptor Signaling in Macrophages
Soumya kanti Ghosh, Kalavati M. Lalsare and Bhaskar Saha
from: Leishmania: Current Biology and Control (Edited by: Subrata Adak and Rupak Datta). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2015) Pages: 121-146.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential pattern recognition receptors (PRR) of the innate immune system. Their sensitivity to variable types of ligand makes them appropriate immune receptors against most type of pathogens. Macrophages, the antigen presenting cells that play host to the protozoan parasite Leishmania, express the entire TLR family of receptors along with other PRRs. TLRs play vital roles during Leishmania infection via regulation of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Leishmania interacts with host cells and invade them through surface molecules such as lipophosphoglycan (LPG), phosphoglycans and other pathogen molecules. Being ligands to several TLR receptors, these molecules can regulate TLR signalling and iNOS expression along with oxidative bursts following infection. Leishmanial survival techniques exploit TLR-TLR crosstalk and TLR signalling mechanisms for survival. This brings changes in signalling pattern and cytokine secretions. This chapter deals with the impact of leishmanial infection on TLR signalling, a major component of innate immunity and a trigger factor for adaptive immune system read more ...