Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress Response in Leishmania
Swati Pal and Subrata Adak
from: Leishmania: Current Biology and Control (Edited by: Subrata Adak and Rupak Datta). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2015) Pages: 55-78.
The generation of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, in response to pathogen attacks, play a central role in host defense mechanism. Leishmania pathogens cleverly evade the assault by evolving several defense strategies to protect themselves against the toxic effects of these reactive species. In the arthropod host, reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Leishmania are generated as a result of cellular metabolism, uncoupled electron transfer in mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as unfavourable environment (limited nutrient and oxygen). In the human host, the parasite additionally encounters both the oxidative and nitrosative stress response; yet they remain successful in establishing and maintaining productive acute and persistent infections in the host. This chapter assembles the current knowledge regarding reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and compares the adaptive mechanisms utilized by Leishmania species to resist the toxic effects resulting from exposure to various environmental stresses read more ...