MChip: A Single Gene Diagnostic Microarray for Influenza A
Erica D. Dawson and Kathy L. Rowlen
from: Influenza: Molecular Virology (Edited by: Qinghua Wang and Yizhi Jane Tao). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2010)
Rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for typing and subtyping influenza viruses are needed for improved worldwide surveillance. Although molecular-based diagnostic methods are becoming more widespread in influenza diagnosis, they generally involve amplification of the hemagglutinin (HA) and/or neuraminidase (NA) gene segments for subtyping. We have developed a low-density microarray (MChip) and accompanying pattern recognition algorithm combined with a reverse transcription PCR based assay and that allows for the identification and subtyping of influenza A viruses in approximately seven hours. MChip is unique in that it is based solely on the matrix (M) gene segment which has enough genetic diversity for subtype analysis but sufficient genetic stability to circumvent the need for continual redesign of primers and microarray probes. An overview is presented here of several MChip studies undertaken over the last several years, highlighting the ability of MChip to identify and subtype influenza A/H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 viruses. In addition, we present data indicating that the MChip performs well relative to gold standard methods for identification of influenza A. It is our hope that improved diagnostic assays coupled with improvements in microarray detection methodology will enable better worldwide surveillance and diagnosis of influenza viral infections read more ...