from: Bacterial Glycomics: Current Research, Technology and Applications (Edited by: Christopher W. Reid, Susan M. Twine, and Anne N. Reid). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2012)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) constitutes the major portion of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane and plays a major role in the physiology of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS can be divided into three structurally distinct regions: lipid A, core oligosaccharide and O-antigenic polysaccharide. Each of these regions as well as regulated modifications, are important in the overall functions of the LPS molecule. Synthesis of lipid A and the core oligosaccharide occurs in the cytoplasm and is separate from that of the O-antigenic polysaccharide. These two portions of the LPS molecule are then ligated in the periplasm prior to transport to the outer membrane. This chapter will describe the structure and cytoplasmic synthesis of LPS, modifications to these structures regulated by environmental conditions or phage-encoded genes, and the transfer of LPS to its final destination at the cell surface read more ...