Paracoccidioides Mechanisms of Pathogenesis and Virulence
Juliana Alves Parente, Clayton Luiz Borges, Maristela Pereira, Alexandre Melo Bailão, Rosely Maria Zancopé Oliveira and Célia Maria de Almeida Soares
from: Human Pathogenic Fungi: Molecular Biology and Pathogenic Mechanisms (Edited by: Derek J. Sullivan and Gary P. Moran). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2014)
Members of the genus Paracoccidioides are the causative agents of one of the most prevalent systemic mycoses in Latin America, namely, paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Studies have reported different degrees of pathogenicity and virulence among the members of this genus and provided evidence of variation in host susceptibility to infection. The identification and validation of virulence factors has been hindered by difficulties in the genetic manipulation of this pathogen, although studies have demonstrated that Paracoccidioides pathogenicity is facilitated through a number of virulence attributes, including fungal dimorphism, the composition of the cell surface and adherence to host tissues, secretion of molecules comprising the virulence arsenal of the fungus, competition with the host for essential nutrients, such as iron, and the pathogen's consequent adaptation to the host environment. This chapter provides information on the current knowledge of the virulence of the genus Paracoccidioides read more ...