The Role of International Organizations in the Control of Foot-and-mouth Disease
Bernard Vallat, Joseph Domenech and Alejandro A. Schudel
from: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: Current Research and Emerging Trends (Edited by: Francisco Sobrino and Esteban Domingo). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2017) Pages: 409-416.
During recent years and in the years to come there has been and there will be a significant increase in food production due to the intensification of the production systems, which has to respond to the increase in demand related to the need of feeding more than 9000 million people. These trends have resulted in an increase in the regional and international exchanges of live animals and animal products and due to this globalization and other factors, diseases affecting animals are playing a key role in livestock productions, affecting food security, food safety and the economy worldwide. Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious vesicular disease of cattle and other cloven-hoofed animals. Although mortality due to the disease is very low and mostly restricted to young animals, a drastic decrease in productivity and working capacity of the animals causes losses to the livestock industry. The disease has an important socio-economic impact in countries where it is endemic, provokes huge economic consequences when outbreaks occur in disease free regions, and is considered one of the most important constraints to international trade of livestock and animal products. To effectively control FMD, a trans-boundary disease by nature, and its impact on the international trade of animals and products, requires a focus that goes beyond individual countries. This is where international and regional organizations play a crucial role in effectively advancing in its control and eradication. The recent success of the program to eradicate Rinderpest from the world achieved in 2011 has been a mayor incentive in motivating international organizations and countries to embark on a similar road for the control of FMD. Controlling Trans-boundary Animal Diseases (TAD) such as FMD at the source is a shared interest between infected and uninfected countries and is considered a Global Public Good. The Office International des Epizooties/World Animal Health Organization (OIE) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations have been leading, under their respective areas of competence, the organization of a global response in order to face the challenge of controlling FMD worldwide. The Global FMD Control Strategy they have defined is being implemented under the OIE/FAO Global Framework for Progressive Control of Trans-boundary Animal Diseases (GF TAD) initiative, which was approved by both international organizations in 2004. As a result they have developed tools, promoted and organized regional activities and coordinated programs to control FMD worldwide as well as reducing the risk of the spread of FMD through international trade read more ...