Peptide Vaccines Against Foot-and-mouth Disease
E. Blanco, D. Andreu and F. Sobrino
from: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: Current Research and Emerging Trends (Edited by: Francisco Sobrino and Esteban Domingo). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2017) Pages: 317-332.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been one of the pioneering systems in the development of synthetic peptide vaccines. Protection against FMDV infection is associated with the induction of neutralizing antibodies in the host species. The presence of a continuous B cell epitope in a loop of capsid protein VP1 prompted its use in peptide constructions that elicited high levels of neutralizing antibodies in laboratory species. Nevertheless, this first generation of linear peptides conferred limited protection in natural hosts, reflecting the difficulties inherent to reproducing the immunogenicity of an entire virus by a simplified replica, such difficulties including lack of adequate T-cell epitopes to address MHC class II polymorphism, or the inefficient presentation of B cell epitopes to the immune system. In this chapter we show how these challenges can be quite successfully overcome by a new generation of peptide vaccines that integrate B- and T- cell epitopes - the former in multimeric presentation - into a single molecular platform conferring solid protection against FMDV infection read more ...