Quality Attributes of Current Inactivated Foot-and-mouth Disease (FMD) Vaccines and their Effects on the Success of Vaccination Programmes
Eliana N. Smitsaart and Ingrid E. Bergmann
from: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: Current Research and Emerging Trends (Edited by: Francisco Sobrino and Esteban Domingo). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2017) Pages: 287-316.
Although foot-and-mouth disease vaccines were in use at least since the 40s the policy of applying vaccination as a preventive tool and to respond to incursions in free countries, known as 'vaccination to live', only recently gained acceptance. This is reflected in changes in the World Organisation for Animal Health Code, which incorporated the new category 'FMD-free country/zone where vaccination is practised' and reduced the waiting periods to recover the status when vaccination is applied during emergencies. Major contributions were the improvements in vaccine manufacturing and quality controls, including batch control by independent bodies, and their successful field application. The combined use of vaccination with serosurveys to monitor viral activity was decisive to overcome the concerns that vaccination would hide infection. The augmented recognition of vaccination strengthened the requirement for a rapid availability of effective vaccines. This chapter describes the basics of the manufacture of vaccines as well as the evolution of modern technology and the growing acceptance of the concept that 'the process is the product'. Also addressed will be the relevance of antigen purification, the criteria for selection of vaccine strains, and the increasing role of antigen and vaccine banks as part of preventive measures to face emergencies read more ...