Natural Habitats in which Foot-and-mouth Disease Viruses are Maintained
Wilna Vosloo and Gavin R. Thomson
from: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: Current Research and Emerging Trends (Edited by: Francisco Sobrino and Esteban Domingo). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2017) Pages: 179-210.
Although many wildlife species have been shown to be susceptible to natural infection with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, only African buffalo can maintain infection with the SAT serotypes for long periods of time, making them the key wildlife species in the epidemiology of FMD in sub-Saharan Africa. There is clear evidence that the Eurasian serotypes cannot be maintained for extended periods of time by any wildlife species, including African buffalo. However, other wildlife species can transmit FMD viruses while actively infected and so act as transient sources of infection. Outbreaks of SAT-type FMD in cattle cause mild, slow-spreading disease that has limited direct impact on livestock, especially in extensive rangeland systems. The implication is that the direct impact of FMD on livestock producers in southern Africa is considerably less than indirect impacts. Geographic approaches to management of FMD based on creation of FMD-free zones with fenced boundaries, especially in extensive rangeland systems, inevitably result in a clash between the interests of livestock production and wildlife conservation, both vital for future healthy rural development. Alternative, non-geographic approaches to sanitary trade standardization have been advanced as a solution to this problem and recently amended international standards have begun to provide new opportunity on this basis read more ...