Clinical Signs and Pathology of Foot-and-mouth Disease
Charles Nfon, Oliver Lung, Carissa Embury-Hyatt and Soren Alexandersen
from: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: Current Research and Emerging Trends (Edited by: Francisco Sobrino and Esteban Domingo). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2017) Pages: 171-178.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) affects a wide range of cloven-hoofed animals and the clinical signs can be varied depending on the age, species, breed and husbandry of the affected animals and on the FMD virus strain. FMD control is highly reliant on early detection. Thus, it is crucial for front line staff and farmers to be able to recognise the obvious and subtle clinical signs and pathology of FMD, and collect the appropriate samples for confirmatory laboratory testing. This chapter describes the spectrum of clinical signs and pathology associated with FMD in different animal species read more ...