Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus Receptors: Multiples Gateways to Initiate Infection
Paul Lawrence and Elizabeth Rieder
from: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: Current Research and Emerging Trends (Edited by: Francisco Sobrino and Esteban Domingo). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2017) Pages: 107-136.
Since its discovery over 100 years ago as the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), research has been directed at understanding the biology of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) so as to be able to control this devastating and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed livestock. Given its persistence and high rate of transmission, FMDV threatens worldwide livestock and related industries and has the potential for significant negative impacts on broader economies. A considerable amount of knowledge has been amassed in the last several decades on FMDV replication, structural biology, and the functionality of its RNA genome and encoded proteins. As a result, new technologies have now afforded the means to control this disease both with new generation vaccines and antiviral therapies. Despite these advances, many of the molecular features of the FMDV genome that determine virulence remain unclear. Developing detailed molecular knowledge of virus-host interactions and identifying mechanisms that might influence pathogenesis and host range will be essential to more effectively countermeasure FMD in the future. This chapter focuses on the cellular receptor molecules that have been identified for FMDV that affect organ and host tropism, as well as the non-receptor proteins and viral factors known to influence either host range or virulence of the virus read more ...