Insights into Influenza Virus-Host Interactions Through Global Gene Expression Profiling: Cell Culture Systems to Animal Models
Marcus J. Korth, John C. Kash, Carole R. Baskin, and Michael G. Katze
from: Influenza Virology: Current Topics (Edited by: Yoshihiro Kawaoka). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2006)
Researchers attempting to study a biological process as complex as the host response to a pathogen have long been faced with difficult choices. Simple model systems, such as cultured cell lines, provide considerable control over experimental variables, and methods that focus on tightly defined parameters can yield results that are often readily interpretable. But simple systems may not be representative of a natural infection, and data generated by focusing on a single gene, protein, or pathway can be difficult to integrate into a global picture. Today, genomic technologies such as DNA microarrays make it possible to perform experiments that provide a near comprehensive view of even such intricate processes as pathogen-host interactions. Still, choosing an experimental infection system remains difficult, and data interpretation has never been more complicated. In this chapter, we describe how gene expression profiling is being used to examine the host response to influenza virus. We discuss how the application of this technology has progressed from simple experimental systems, such as the in vitro infection of HeLa cells, to highly complex systems such as mouse and nonhuman primate models of infection. We also discuss the challenges associated with interpreting huge volumes of data generated from microarray analyses, and describe how comparing the host's transcriptional response to infection by diverse wild type or engineered viruses is providing new insights into the characteristics of influenza virus that contribute to its variable virulence read more ...