Influenza Vaccines: Current and Future Strategies
Jacqueline M. Katz, Sanjay Garg, and Suryaprakash Sambhara
from: Influenza Virology: Current Topics (Edited by: Yoshihiro Kawaoka). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2006)
Vaccination is the primary method for the prevention of influenza and its complications. The continual genetic and antigenic variation that influenza viruses undergo requires constant global surveillance to identify and select new variants with epidemic potential or novel viruses with pandemic potential for inclusion in vaccines. Two general types of influenza vaccines, inactivated or live attenuated vaccines, both grown in embryonated hen's eggs, are currently licensed for use. Inactivated vaccines induce immunity to infection in 70-90% of healthy adults < 65 years of age when there is a good antigenic match between vaccine and circulating virus strain, but are generally less effective in older adults. Improved vaccines against epidemic influenza and effective vaccines against potential pandemic viruses are a public health priority. New strategies for influenza vaccines include altering the dose, site, or method of delivery of inactivated vaccines, the use of adjuvants or immunomodulators to enhance immune responses, or targeting viral proteins that may promote broader, cross-protective responses. Plasmid-based reverse genetics technology may provide a more rapid approach to the generation of candidate vaccine strains, and is essential for vaccine strains derived from highly pathogenic avian viruses. Cell culture-based vaccines may improve manufacturing capacity, particularly in the event of a newly emergent pandemic threat read more ...