Escherichia coli Pathotypes
James L. Smith and Pina M. Fratamico
from: Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Evolution, Omics, Detection and Control (Edited by: Pina M. Fratamico, Yanhong Liu and Christopher H. Sommers). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2018) Pages: 1-14.
Escherichia coli strains are important commensals of the intestinal tract of humans and animals; however, pathogenic strains, including diarrhoea-inducing E. coli and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, exist. Intestinal E. coli pathotypes may cause a dehydrating watery diarrhoea, or more severe diseases such as heamorrhagic colitis and heamolytic uremic syndrome. The different E. coli pathotypes can be transmitted to humans via contaminated food and water, and transmission can also occur through animal and person-to-person contact. The extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli reside in the intestinal tract but may escape to cause disease in bodily sites outside of the gut and can cause urinary tract infection, neonatal meningitis, sepsis, and other types of infections. Avian pathogenic E. coli are a cause of poultry diseases and are closely related to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains that cause human infections. Poultry contaminated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and avian pathogenic E. coli may be an important source of E. coli strains that cause illness in humans at non-intestinal sites; however, additional research is needed to confirm this. Furthermore, hybrid E. coli strains have emerged in recent years that harbour virulence genes from more than one pathotype, and these have caused serious outbreaks and infections read more ...