Host Cell Invasion by Pathogenic E. coli
Adam J. Lewis, Elizabeth M. Ott, Travis J Wiles and Matthew A. Mulvey
from: Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Molecular and Cellular Microbiology (Edited by: Stefano Morabito). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2014)
Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli are likely not the first bacteria that come to mind when most scientists and physicians contemplate invasive microorganisms. Yet, select members of this genetically diverse group of pathogens are adept at invading host cells and taking advantage of the numerous benefits afforded to bacteria within intracellular niches. These benefits include access to alternate nutrient sources and increased protection from the shear flow of bodily fluids and the damaging effects of host phagocytes, complement, antimicrobial peptides, antibodies, and, in some cases, antibiotics. To reap these rewards, bacterial pathogens must manipulate host cell machinery to promote their uptake, subsequently avoid destruction within lysosomal compartments, and ultimately return to the extracellular environment to perpetuate their genetic lineage. Here we cover four invasive pathotypes of E. coli: uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC). The molecular mechanisms and consequences of host cell invasion by these important pathogens are discussed, with an emphasis on UPEC read more ...