Controlling Human Papillomavirus and Hepatitis B Virus Infections: Prophylatic Vaccines and Future Prospects
from: DNA Tumour Viruses: Virology, Pathogenesis and Vaccines (Edited by: Sally Roberts). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2018) Pages: 105-118.
It is estimated that, globally, 15% of cancers can be attributed to viral infections. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes more than 300,000 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma per year and a subset of 13 human papillomaviruses (HPV) particularly HPV type 16 cause more than 530,000 cases of cervical cancer and 100,000 other anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers per year. HBV infection has been preventable by vaccination since 1982 and vaccination of neonates and infants is highly effective resulting already in decreased rates of new infections, chronic liver disease and HCC. Nonetheless HBV remains a global public health problem with high rates of vertical transmission from mother to child in some regions. Two prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines composed of virus like particles (VLPs) of the L1 capsid protein have been licensed since 2006/7. Both target infection by the oncogenic HPV's 16 and 18 (the cause of 70% of cervical cancers) and one also targets the low risk HPV types 6 and 11 that cause genital and laryngeal warts. The vaccines are now included in the national immunisation programmes in many countries, with young adolescent peri-pubertal girls the usual cohort for immunisation. Population effectiveness in women is now being demonstrated in countries with high vaccine coverage with significant reductions in cervical intra epithelial neoplasia, genital warts, vaccine HPV type genoprevalence and herd effects in young heterosexual men and older women. A third VLP vaccine targeting 7 oncogenic HPVs, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 plus HPV6 and 11 was licensed in the USA and Europe in 2014/2015 and it is predicted could reduce the incidence of cervical cancer by >85% read more ...