Hepatitis B Virus: Molecular Biology, Carcinogenic Mechanisms, and Therapies
Nicholas Duchemin, Sumedha Bagga and Michael J. Bouchard
from: DNA Tumour Viruses: Virology, Pathogenesis and Vaccines (Edited by: Sally Roberts). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2018) Pages: 79-104.
A chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection can cause liver cancer, specifically hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A variety of mechanisms that can lead from HBV infection to development of HCC have been proposed and could include prolonged expression of HBV proteins that alter cellular signaling pathways, recurrent anti-HBV inflammatory responses associated with death of HBV-infected hepatocytes and concomitant liver regeneration, and integration of the HBV genome into the host cell chromosome, which could alter expression of cellular genes. Because it typically requires decades for a chronic HBV infection to cause liver cancer, it has been difficult to identify a single HBV-related effect that is carcinogenic, and it is likely that subtle HBV-associated effects over a prolonged period of time cause HCC. Anti-HBV therapies, such as interferon or nucleoside analogs can successfully control HBV replication and delay development of diseases associated with an HBV infection; however, these treatments are typically not curative. In this chapter, mechanisms that have been proposed to contribute to the progression and development of HBV-associated HCC, as well as established and emerging anti-HBV therapeutic strategies, will be discussed read more ...