Biology of the Human Papillomavirus Life Cycle
Sally Roberts, Ieisha Pentland, Paul McCormack and Joanna L. Parish
from: DNA Tumour Viruses: Virology, Pathogenesis and Vaccines (Edited by: Sally Roberts). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2018) Pages: 25-58.
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are small, double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate in squamous epithelium and cause hyperproliferative lesions, some of which are at risk of malignant transformation. The infectious HPV replication cycle is intimately linked to the differentiation program of this tissue. The virus infects undifferentiated basal keratinocytes to establish and maintain replication of the viral genome, whereas productive viral DNA amplification and formation of new progeny is restricted to differentiating keratinocytes. Successful viral replication in differentiated cells requires the virus to reprogram the post-mitotic keratinocytes in order to support viral genome replication. The use of animal PV models and cell-based tissue culture models of the virus life cycle, combined with generation of recombinant virions for infection studies, has revealed much about the complexities of the HPV life cycle. Defining the nature of the keratinocyte that HPV targets, infection strategies, and virus-host interactions necessary for virus DNA replication and virion production has contributed to the design of anti-HPV vaccines and the understanding of HPV-driven cancer development. This chapter aims to provide an overview of key HPV life cycle events and the models used to interrogate virus-host interplay read more ...