Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis to Understand Systems-level Properties of Diurnal Cycles in Nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria
Uma K. Aryal and Louis A. Sherman
from: Cyanobacteria: Omics and Manipulation (Edited by: Dmitry A. Los). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2017) Pages: 117-144.
Photosynthetic cyanobacteria are important model organisms for many studies and, like plants, they have developed complex strategies for regulating metabolism during alternating light-dark cycles. Transcriptomics and proteomics technologies are now routinely applied for systems-level analysis of cyanobacteria. Although transcriptional regulation is a mature field, analysis of the cyanobacterial proteome is in its infancy. Thus, this review will concentrate on proteomics and focus on new technological improvements that have been applied to cyanobacteria. Proteins are the key functional units of the cell and their functions are controlled and driven by post-translational modifications (PTMs), and protein-protein interactions. We will emphasize research on the diazotrophic, unicellular cyanobacteria of the genus Cyanothece, since these strains perform two disparate types of metabolism: photosynthesis, which functions during the light and nitrogen fixation, which functions during the dark. Transcriptional features varied dramatically throughout the 24 hr diel cycle. However, proteome analysis revealed that proteins are much more stable throughout the light and dark and provides clues as to how cells conserve energy by keeping proteins within a modest range during the light-dark cycle. We emphasize that the development of new methods and mass spectrometers that enhances the performance of the proteomic workflow will be critical for future research, which should focus on PTMs, endogenous protein complexes and protein-protein interactions read more ...