Coronavirus Binding and Entry
David E. Wentworth and Kathryn V. Holmes
from: Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology (Edited by: Volker Thiel). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2007)
Coronaviruses are a diverse family of viruses that bind to host cells primarily through interactions between viral spike glycoproteins and specific host cell surface glycoproteins. Some coronaviruses also bind to sialic acids on glycoproteins and glycolipids via their spike and/or hemagglutinin esterase glycoproteins. The interactions between coronaviruses and host cell receptors are critical determinants of species-specificity, tissue tropism, and virulence. This chapter summarizes how coronaviruses bind to host cells and how the viral envelope fuses with host cell membranes to initiate infection. It will focus on the viral spike and hemagglutinin esterase glycoproteins and their interactions with known host cell receptor proteins, sialyloligosaccharides, and lectins. The functions of the other coronavirus structural proteins, non-structural and accessory proteins, as well as the fascinating replication strategy of coronaviruses will be discussed in later chapters read more ...